The six evidence-based Principles of Quality Teaching model effective teaching strategies and behaviours. Reviewers can look for evidence of all six Principles in the reviewee's teaching.
The set of Principles for Quality Teaching below applies to face-to-face teaching. Principles of Quality Teaching for asynchronous teaching can be found here.
Each Principle of Quality Teaching is underpinned by a set of observable indicators. In order to access the observable indicators, please click on the cross on the right of the Principle. The observable indicators illustrate possible ways in which a Principle can be demonstrated. Please note that it is not necessary to demonstrate all indicators.
Principles of Quality Teaching rarely occur in isolation. It is likely that one teaching activity can cover several Principles. For example, group work requiring students to relate a concept to real-life situations could potentially cover Principle 1 (Engages students in active learning), Principle 3 (Links learning to professional, disciplinary, industry and/or personal contexts), Principle 4 (Challenges and supports student learning) and Principle 6 (Caters for student diversity).
Principle 1: Engages students in active learning
- Encourages students to ask and answer questions
- Provides timely and constructive feedback
- Encourages students to interact with each other and the lecturer
- Creates opportunities for reflection
- Employs resources and technology meaningfully to support student engagement in learning by
- Effectively utilises the online, in-class and hybrid learning spaces
- Effectively uses learning technologies
- Employing a variety of technology and non-technology-based activities
Principle 2: Builds on students' existing knowledge
- Creates opportunities for sharing of and reflecting on prior knowledge
- Seeks feedback to determine students' understanding
- Provides real life examples or elicits them from students
- Recapitulates and builds on class preparation
- Seeks feedback progressively during the session, for example through constant observation of interest levels and engagement
- Checks for understanding and seeks feedback throughout the session and adapts teaching accordingly
- Seeks feedback toward the conclusion of the session to assist students in determining individual work to be consolidated
- Helps students bridge the gap between their current conceptual understanding and the next “level”
- Helps students become aware of what the next levels are
Principle 3: Links learning to professional, disciplinary, industry and/or personal contexts
- Provides opportunities for reflecting on the relevance of their discipline to industry, their profession and everyday life
- Relates theory to real life situations, including personal, professional, industry and research contexts (or applications).
- Facilitates learning activities that include simulated or real-life scenarios, e.g. case studies
- Contextualises graduate capabilities within disciplinary and professional contexts
- Provides examples from professional, disciplinary, industry or personal contexts. These may include images, videos, texts, biographies, products, artefacts and guest presenters.
- Supports students’ engagement with research at a developmentally appropriate level.
- Provides opportunities for research activities which are appropriate to the students’ level of understanding, e.g. critiquing a journal article, designing interview or survey questions
- Links learning to professional values and ethical conduct within the discipline
- Links learning to current research and disciplinary scholarship
Principle 4: Challenges and supports student learning
- Supports students in taking responsibility for their own independent learning
- Challenges students intellectually by asking them to justify their conclusions (“What do you think is going on”; “Why”; “What if …?” etc.)
- Encourages students to “construct“ their individual conceptual understanding
- Encourages deep (rather than surface) approaches to learning by requiring students to relate ideas to one another, connect their learning to previous experiences or demonstrate their own understanding of concepts
Principle 5: Communicates expectations and requirements
- Makes relevant key learning outcomes explicit
- Links activities to key learning outcomes
- Establishes expectations about class preparation and participation
- Establishes ground rules for student – student and student – lecturer interactions, such as discussions or pair and group work
- Clarifies the relevance of learning to assessment
- Clarifies the relevance of activities for student learning
Principle 6: Caters for student diversity
- Engage students in a variety of learning activities that accommodate different levels of knowledge, understanding, participation, contributions and opportunities to demonstrate learning in accordance with Universal Design for Learning (UDL) principles; for example:
- activities that require students to draw on their own experiences
- collaborative and individual learning activities
- activities for which there is more than one possible answer
- activities allowing spoken and written participation
- a combination of teacher-directed and student-centred activities
- Ensure course materials, resources, and activities are accessible to all students with different abilities in accordance with UDL principles, including WCAG 2.0 AA standards (hyperlink)
- Establish and remind students of ground rules for mutual respect
- Encourage students to link learning to their diverse backgrounds, experiences and perspectives
- Build students’ confidence in their ability to master concepts